Partially. The sectors 0,0 and some more immediately around have some real-life stars (Sol, Barnard's Star, Delta Pavonis, Beta Hydri, some stars from Luyten catalogue).Nice map Zireal. Is the rest of the frontier map based on our real-life galaxy???
Some more real-life stars can also be found further away (info from Daniel Sevo's page):
System Name Coordinates Comment
Aldebaran (6), (4)
Antares (-39), (-34)
Betelgeuse (59), (14)
Beta Lyrae (-146), (85) The famous "Contact Binary" star that crashes the game
Canopus (6), (-6)
Hadar (-6), (-40) Actually has 3 planets with indigenous life!
Polaris (0), (76) (Northern star)
Rigel (92), (6)
Spica (-4), (-17)
Dumbell Nebula (-72), (38) Nebula
Pleiades (32), (32) Star Cluster
I think some more stars are in (Sigma Draconis, Epsilon Eridani) but the rest is procedurally generated.